Special Column-5G Slicing Technology and Its Applications

Research on 5G network slice management based on network exposure

DOI:10.16157/j.issn.0258-7998.191360

Author:Li Hongyi,Zhao Yirong,Li Jinyan,Zhu Xuetian

Author Affilications:China Telecom Corporation Limited Technology Innovation Center,Beijing 102209,China

Abstract:Network slicing is one of the hot technologies in 5G, and the flexibility and timeliness of slicing management are important issues in deployment. Based on the introduction of the creation and management mechanism of 5G network slices, this paper proposes a network slice management architecture based on the openness of 5G network capabilities, and discusses the optimization process of network slice parameters and typical application scenarios.The timeliness advantage of 5G capability opening will greatly enhance the flexibility of network slice management and ensure the user′s business experience.
Key word:
network slicing
slice management
network exposure
5G

Research on AI based 5G network slice management technology

DOI:10.16157/j.issn.0258-7998.191355

Author:Xu Dan1,Wang Haining1,Yuan Xiangfeng1,Zhu Xuetian2

Author Affilications:1.China Telecom Research Institute AI R & D Center,Beijing 102209,China; 2.China Telecom Intelligent Network and Terminal Research Institute,Beijing 102209,China

Abstract:5G network slicing supports three major service scenarios including enhanced mobile broadband(eMBB), ultra-reliable low-latency communication(uRLLC), and massive machine-type communication(mMTC). It can share physical resources and ensure the isolation requirements between slices. Network slicing features,such as on-demand customization, real-time deployment, and dynamic guarantee,enable network flexibility, but make network management and operation more complex and challenging. Artificial intelligence(AI) technology is a potential solution to the complexity of network slice management. Therefore, this article will study the integration of AI and network slice management, propose an AI-based intelligent slice management architecture, introduce the intelligent slice management processes in detail, and present some typical application cases.
Key word:
network slicing
artificial intelligence
intelligent slice management

Research on application of network slices in vehicle-road cooperative system

DOI:10.16157/j.issn.0258-7998.191362

Author:Zhang Lei,Zhu Xuetian,Li Jinyan

Author Affilications:China Telecom Corporation Limited Technology Innovation Center,Beijing 102209,China

Abstract:5G network slicing has received widespread attention in the vehicular network industry, and the development and evolution of various scenarios of vehicle-road collaboration also reflect that 5G applications are gradually deepening. In this paper, the development process of vehicle-road collaboration and the network performance requirements are analyzed firstly. Then we present the system architecture of vehicle-road collaboration. Subsequently, implementation cases and specific processes are given out, including network slicing creation process, scheduling system for slice resources. Finally, the key technologies of network slicing to ensure the vehicle-road collaboration security are introduced.
Key word:
5G network slicing
vehicle-road collaboration system
resource intelligent scheduling
uRLLC

Research on 5G network slicing enabling the smart grid

DOI:10.16157/j.issn.0258-7998.191131

Author:Xia Xu1,Yuan Xin2,Liang Yun3,Zhang Lei1

Author Affilications:1.China Telecom Intelligent Networks and Devices Research Institute,Beijing 102209,China; 2.Chinese Enterprises Elephant Financial Services Co.,Ltd.,Beijing 100089,China; 3.Global Energy Interconnection Research Institute Co.,Ltd.,Beijing 102200,China

Abstract:The power system promotes the construction of a strong smart grid and a ubiquitous power Internet of Things, making full use of modern information and communication technologies to support the evolution of traditional power grids to the energy Internet. In recent years, network slicing has received widespread attention from researchers, and it is not only a technology but also a new business model, which has attracted broad interest of researchers. Based on above background, in this paper, several typical user cases for smart grid are introduced firstly. In addition, we present the E2E business models and steps to implement network slicing for operators. Besides, the Total Cost of Ownership(TCO) and Return on Investment(ROI) of Network Slicing are also analyzed in Smart Grids for Operators.
Key word:
smart grid
network slicing
business model
TCO
ROI

Review and Comment

Overview on GaN FET structure, driving and its application

DOI:10.16157/j.issn.0258-7998.190961

Author:Wu Wenjun,Lan Xuemei

Author Affilications:School of Automation and Information Engineering,Xi′an University of Technology,Xi′an 710048,China

Abstract:To make power electronic devices miniaturization and lightweight, GaN FET is paid extensive attention in power electronic application fields because of its advanced performance than Si device. GaN FET structure and its driving circuit have important impacts on operating safely and stably. In the paper, firstly, the GaN FET structure and its products are introduced; Secondly, the isolated method is described, then the principles of the discrete driving circuit and the integrated driving circuit are presented; Finally, GaN FET′s application is summarized.
Key word:
GaN FET
stucture
principle
driving
product

Artificial Intelligence

Research on automatic proofreading of Chinese text based on Transformer model

DOI:10.16157/j.issn.0258-7998.191013

Author:Gong Yonggang,Pei Chenchen,Lian Xiaoqin,Wang Jiaxin

Author Affilications:College of Computer and Information Engineering Beijing Key Laboratory of Food Safety Big Data Technology, Beijing Technology and Business University,Beijing 100048,China

Abstract:This paper proposes to apply Transformer model in the field of Chinese text automatic proofreading. Transformer model is different from traditional Seq2Seq model based on probability, statistics, rules or BiLSTM. This deep learning model improves the overall structure of Seq2Seq model to achieve automatic proofreading of Chinese text. By comparing different models with public data sets and using accuracy, recall rate and F1 value as evaluation indexes, the experimental results show that Transformer model has greatly improved proofreading performance compared with other models.
Key word:
Chinese text proofreading
Transformer model
deep learning

Convolutional neural network face detection algorithm

DOI:10.16157/j.issn.0258-7998.190870

Author:Wang Jingbo,Meng Lingjun

Author Affilications:National Key Laboratory for Electronic Measurement Technology,North University of China,Taiyuan 030051,China

Abstract:Traditional face detection algorithms often cannot extract useful detection features from the original image, and convolutional neural networks can easily extract high-dimensional feature information, which is widely used in image processing. In view of the above shortcomings, a simple and efficient deep learning Caffe framework is adopted and trained by AlexNet network. The data set is LFW face dataset, and a model classifier is obtained. Image pyramid transformation is performed on the original image data, and feature graph is obtained by forward propagation. The inverse transformation yields the face coordinates, uses the non-maximum suppression algorithm to obtain the optimal position, and finally reaches a two-class face detection result. The method can realize face detection with different scales and has high precision, and can be used to construct a face detection system.
Key word:
face detection
convolutional neural network
deep learing
image pyramid
non-maximum suppression

Microelectronic Technology

A high performance pulse signal processing circuit module

DOI:10.16157/j.issn.0258-7998.190977

Author:Xie Heling,Jin Jianhui,Xie Jiaming,Wan Zhou

Author Affilications:School of Information Engineering and Automation,Kunming University of Science and Technology,Kunming 650504,China

Abstract:Aiming at the problems of high performance,high requirements and difficult processing of power electronic device driving pulse signal,a high performance pulse signal processing circuit module is designed and fabricated, and the design is completed by EDA high speed circuit technology. LTspice simulates the circuit system and conducts experimental test. Compared with the domestic research status, the test index has been significantly improved. The high-speed pulse forward rectification of 1 MHz is realized, the output level is controllable, the pulse width adjustment range is 20% to 60%, and the upper and lower edge time is controlled within 25 ns, wherein the falling edge time as low as 13 ns, the transmission delay adjustment range is 20 ns to 110 ns, and the 2 MHz pulse signal indicators are also greatly improved, thereby effectively improving the efficiency of the drive circuit and the main circuit. Further optimizing the selection and layout of the device and adopting a more sophisticated manufacturing process, it is expected to process pulse signals with a frequency of up to 5 MHz, making the power electronic circuit more integrated and efficient.
Key word:
high performance pulse
controllable rising and decline edge time
short edge time
adjustable pulse parameters

Design of a high stability LDO without off-chip capacitor

DOI:10.16157/j.issn.0258-7998.190920

Author:Huo Dexuan,Zhang Guojun

Author Affilications:State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054,China

Abstract:This paper is aimed at researching and designing LDOs without off-chip capacitors. Whether the LDO can stabilize the output voltage when there is no external capacitor is studied. Based on this, a new type of high-stability LDO structure with no off-chip capacitor is studied to apply power to the internal circuit module in the DC-DC converter. The poles of the LDO are adjustd by adjusting the internal op amp structure and Miller compensation of the op amp. The simulation results show that the structure has high stability and can output a stable voltage.
Key word:
no off-chip capacitor
LDO
DC-DC converter
operational amplifier
Miller compensation

Design of a low-voltage constant transconductance rail-to-rail CMOS operational amplifier

DOI:10.16157/j.issn.0258-7998.191092

Author:Gao Yuhong,Li Junlong

Author Affilications:Lvliang University,Lvliang 033000,China

Abstract:This paper presents a rail-to-rail constant transconductance operational amplifier input stage. The proposed circuit changes the tail current of the input differential pairs dynamically for a constant-gm by using dummy input differential pairs. The problem which causes total gm variation is input pairs and dummy input pairs can not take effect at the same time with the common-mode input voltage changes, because the tail current transistor of the input pairs are in triode region when the input pairs are turned off, the dummy input pairs will enter subthreshold region from cut-off region before the input pairs when common-mode voltage changes. The effect of this problem is more obviously in low supply voltage design. To solve this problem, compensate current sources is added to the tail current transistors of each dummy input differential pairs for lower gm variation. The gm of this Op Amp′s input stage varies around ±2%.
Key word:
rail-to-rail
operational amplifier
compensate current

Design and simulation of high linearity CMOS analog multiplier

DOI:10.16157/j.issn.0258-7998.190954

Author:Ding Kun1,Tian Ruizhi1,Wang Tao1,2,Wang Peng1,Yi Maoxiang1,Zhang Qingzhe1

Author Affilications:1.National Model Institute of Microelectronics,School of Electronic Science and Applied Physics,Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009,China; 2.School of Information Science and Technology,University of Science and Technology of China,Hefei 230027,China

Abstract:A high linearity CMOS analog multiplier is designed and simulated. The input signal is preprocessed by active attenuator and the CMOS Gilbert multiplier is used for multiplication of the signal, and the bias circuit is designed meanwhile. When the supply voltage is ±1.8 V and the input range is ±0.6 V, the output range is less than ±25 mV and good linearity of the analog multiplier is obtained using optimized characteristics of transistors. The frequency doubling character of the analog multiplier is favorable since the -3 dB bandwidth of the analog multiplier is 181 MHz. Moreover, the temperature characteristic of multiplier is simulated and the layout of multiplier is designed optimally,and the relationship between linearity and output amplitude is discussed. The linearity of the multiplier during wider input range proposed herein is higher than that in the references.
Key word:
analog multiplier
CMOS Gilbert unit
active attenuator
high linearity

Hardware design of convolution calculation module based on systolic array

DOI:10.16157/j.issn.0258-7998.191070

Author:Wang Chunlin,Tan Kejun

Author Affilications:Information Science and Technology College,Dalian Maritime University,Dalian 116026,China

Abstract:Aiming at the long broadcast, much fan in/fan out data path problem brought by high parullelism in the process of the Field Programmable Gate Array(FPGA) to realize the convolution computation in convolutional neural network, this paper adopts pulse array to realize convolution calculation module of convolutional neural network, fixes weights to each processing unit, according to the dimension of the input and output characteristic figure sets to pulse array size, and finally by Vivado high level synthesis realizes convolution calculation module hardware design. The experimental results show that the design has low resource occupancy and good expansibility while realizing the time-series requirements of level 1 pipelining.
Key word:
FPGA
systolic array
convolution computation
high level synthesis

Measurement Control Technology and Instruments

Design of high-speed image data transmission system based on DDR2

DOI:10.16157/j.issn.0258-7998.190715

Author:Ren Yongfeng,Zhang Zefang,Wang Guozhong,Zhang Kaihua

Author Affilications:National Key Laboratory for Electronic Measurement Technology,North University of China,Taiyuan 030051,Shanxi

Abstract:In the high-speed image data transmission system, a high-speed image data transmission system design scheme based on DDR2 SDRAM is proposed for the high throughput of image data and the application of "large capacity" data buffer. In order to meet the high throughput requirements of image data and the large capacity requirements of data caching, FPGA internal FIFO resources with off-chip DDR2 hierarchical cache mechanism is adopted. In order to facilitate the reading and writing of image data and the management of addresses, the internal storage space of DDR is redistributed. After testing, the system can display image data in real time on the host computer, which is stable and reliable.
Key word:
DDR2
FPGA
hierarchical caching
data transmission

Cable force measurement system design and experiment based on heterodyne laser Doppler vibrometer

DOI:10.16157/j.issn.0258-7998.190812

Author:Li Dongming1,Wang Xiang2,3,Xu Junfeng4,Chai Xiaopeng1,2,Hu Yabin1,Wang Yongtao1

Author Affilications:1.School of Automation,China University of Geosciences,Wuhan 430074,China; 2.China Railway Bridge Science Research Institude Ltd.,Wuhan 430034,China; 3.State Key Laboratory of Bridge Structure Health and Safety,Wuhan 430034,China; 4.The 722 Institute of China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation(CSIC),Wuhan 430074,China

Abstract:Cable force of bridge cable is an important standard to measure the safety of bridge. According to the working principle of laser Doppler vibration measurement, a small and high-precision laser Doppler vibration measurement system is designed and applied to cable tension measurement. Firstly, the frequency stability characteristics of the heterodyne acousto-optic frequency shifter laser Doppler vibration system are analysed, and the heterodyne laser Doppler vibrometer which is composed of the direct digital frequency synthesizer and the serial dual frequency shifter is then proposed, and the adaptive filter is used to eliminate the disturbance caused by the environmental vibration in this vibration measurement system. The low frequency vibration measurement experiments and real cable force measurement experiments show that the frequency shift system based on DDS has high frequency stability. The background noise of the vibration meter shows a flat distribution in the low frequency range, and the vibration measurement system itself has very strong seismic ability. It provides an effective method for bridge cable force monitoring.
Key word:
heterodyne laser Doppler
acousto-optic frequency shifter
vibration method
cable force
low frequency

Particle dynamic trajectory measurement method based on asynchronous delay method

DOI:10.16157/j.issn.0258-7998.190836

Author:Kong Ming1,Dong Ping1,Shan Liang2,Zhao Jun1

Author Affilications:1.College of Metrology & Measurement Engineering,China Jiliang University,Hangzhou 310018,China; 2.College of Information Engineering,China Jiliang University,Hangzhou 310018,China

Abstract:In order to obtain the details of the moon dust particles dynamic trajectory on the moon, and reduce the damage of the moon dust particles to the aircraft and astronauts, a particle dynamic trajectory measurement method was proposed, based on the asynchronous delay method and the light field camera. During the long exposure time,the trajectory of the particles recorded was used to observe the particles motion state. This topic firstly used a common Charge Coupled Device(CCD) camera to build a two-dimensional measurement system for particle motion trajectory measurement. This method did not require complex image processing algorithms,and used simple superposition of images realized the particle motion trajectory measurement,the measurement system error is 0.28%. It lays the foundation for the three-dimensional measurement of particle trajectory by using the light field camera later.
Key word:
particles
trajectory
measurement
asynchronous
delay

Corrosion evaluation of tank floor based on acoustic emission detection based on GA-BP network

DOI:10.16157/j.issn.0258-7998.190863

Author:Liu Qihua1,Zhang Shijie2

Author Affilications:1.State Key Laboratory of Precision Measuring Technology and Instruments,Tianjin University,Tianjin 300072,China; 2.Tianjin Research Institute for Water Transport Engineering,M.O.T,Tianjin 300456,China

Abstract:Acoustic emission on-line detection method was used to obtain the acoustic emission information of the tank bottom. Combined with the parameters of the tank itself, a genetic algorithm(GA) and BP neural network were combined to establish a model to evaluate the corrosion of the tank. BP neural network evaluation model and GA-BP network evaluation model were established respectively, and the results of the two models were compared. The results show that the GA-BP corrosion evaluation model of the tank bottom has better adaptability and higher prediction accuracy than the BP neural network evaluation model alone. The experiment has reference value for the on-line detection of atmospheric tank corrosion, and provides support for China′s independent research and development of acoustic emission detection system of atmospheric pressure metal storage tanks.
Key word:
tank corrosion
acoustic emission detection
BP neural network
genetic algorithm

Communication and Network

Image encryption using 3D Logistic-Sine cascade map

DOI:10.16157/j.issn.0258-7998.190966

Author:Zeng Ke,Yu Simin,Hu Yingchun,Zhang Zeqing

Author Affilications:College of Automation, Guangdong University of Technology,Guangzhou 510006,China

Abstract:This paper proposes a three-dimensional Logistic-Sine cascade map(3D-LSCM). Firstly, a three-dimensional Logistic-Sine cascade map was constructed by using the output of the Logistic map as the input of the Sine map. Secondly,this paper designs an image encryption scheme using 3D-LSCM, which consists of two rounds of scrambling and two-way diffusion,and introduces the plaintext as part of initial conditions of 3D-LSCM to enchance the difficulty in deciphering equivalent keys. The feasibility of the algorithm was confirmed throung security analysis and numerical simulation.
Key word:
chaos systems
image encryption
security analysis

A digital beamforming algorithm of horizontally polarized directional antenna array

DOI:10.16157/j.issn.0258-7998.191001

Author:Tang Tao1,Ma Huan2,Wu Zhidong1

Author Affilications:1.Institute of Engineering Information Engineering University,Zhengzhou 450001,China; 2.Tongfang Electronic Technology Co.,Ltd.,Jiujiang 332007,China

Abstract:In this paper, the digital beamforming algorithm for horizontally polarized directional antenna array in narrowband multipath environment is studied. Because the steering vector of directional antenna arrays is complex and cannot be modeled exactly, blind beamforming algorithm is usually used for directional antenna arrays. As the existing blind beamforming algorithms require much prior information, work poorly for weak signals, have limited applications, and need high computational complexity, this paper designs a multi-polarization heterogeneous array cooperative processing scheme, and proposes a new multipath strengthening beamforming algorithm based on adaptive loading projection. The heterogeneous array consists of vertical polarization omnidirectional antenna array and horizontal polarization directional antenna array. The new algorithm utilizes the respective advantages of the two polarization arrays. This algorithm combines the methods of spatial smoothing, sampling matrix inversion, and spatial projection, and further improves the robustness of waveform estimation through adaptive loading processing. The algorithm requires less computation and less prior information, and has strong adaptability to non-ideal conditions. The implementation process and error analysis of the new algorithm are deduced, and effectiveness of the new algorithm is verified through computer simulations.
Key word:
beamforming
narrowband multipath environment
heterogeneous array
adaptive loading
spatial projection

Computer Technology and Its Applications

Fast topology algorithm for STL files based on half-edges structure

DOI:10.16157/j.issn.0258-7998.190962

Author:Wu Xiaochao,Chen Hong

Author Affilications:School of Instrument and Electronics,North University of China,Taiyuan 030051,China

Abstract:In order to solve the problem that the topological relationship between the triangular facets is lost when the 3D model is converted to STL files,in the process of reading and analyzing STL files, a fast topology reconstruction algorithm based on half-edges structure and hash table is proposed. In the process of reading data, a point table without repeat position information is established through a hash table, and a collection containing half-edges in which no adjacency facets are added is maintained therein. According to the set and topology algorithm, the topological relationship of the facets is improved, and the topological relationship of the facets is quickly established in the process of reading data.
Key word:
STL file
half-edges structure
hash table
topology algorithm

Public metadata configuration management platform design

DOI:10.16157/j.issn.0258-7998.190761

Author:Ren Lijuan,Lu Jun,Guo Wei

Author Affilications:Software Engineering Institute,Chengdu University of Information Technology,Chengdu 610225,China

Abstract:With the rapid development of the Internet, each platform often uses metadata to organize and manage system data resources. The system within the platform is closed so that metadata resources are dispersed and stored repeatedly, which increases the difficulty of metadata sharing and reduces the utilization of metadata. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes a public metadata configuration management platform, which provides unified configuration and management of public metadata, provides configuration and shared metadata services by using Web Service technology, and improves data sharing efficiency by using Redis memory database. At present, a configuration management platform based on meteorological public metadata has been used in the meteorological big data platform, which not only improves the utilization of the platform common metadata, saves storage, but also improves the response speed of the service. This article abstracts the main functions of the configuration management platform, making the system design applicable to other similar metadata-based data sharing platforms.
Key word:
metadata
Web Service
configuration
sharing
Redis

Embedded Technology

SOC estimation of power lithium battery based on GA-BP neural network

DOI:10.16157/j.issn.0258-7998.190981

Author:Yu Meixin,Shi Wei,Jiang Long,Wang Hao

Author Affilications:Institute of Mechanical Engineering,Jiangsu Polytechnic,Changzhou 213000,China

Abstract:In order to promote the power, economy and safety of new energy vehicles and estimate accurately the state of charge(SOC) of lithium batteries for vehicles, this paper takes pure electric vehicle power lithium batteries as the research object, uses genetic algorithm(GA) to optimize BP neural network, and handles the shortcomings of slow convergence speed, weak global search ability and easy to fall into local minimum of error back propagation. A neural network model for predicting SOC value based on GA-BP algorithm is presented. Compared with traditional BP algorithm, the simulation outcomes show that the algorithm takes into account the learning speed, small error, global search ability of the neural network and meets the requirements of estimating SOC value of power battery.
Key word:
power lithium battery
BP neural network
SOC estimation
genetic algorithm
simulation analysis

The development of telecommunication terminal for power wireless private network based on embedded system

DOI:10.16157/j.issn.0258-7998.190935

Author:Wang Xingtao,Zhao Xunwei,Fu Haixuan,Li Jin′an,Ding Gaoquan,Wu Qing,Li Wenjing

Author Affilications:State Grid Information & Telecommunication Group Co.,Ltd.,Beijing 102211,China

Abstract:State Grid Corporation is comprehensively promoting the construction of ubiquitous power Internet of Things. Power wireless private network is the important wireless access network. The research and application of new intelligent terminal is the important construction content. According to the business needs of ubiquitous power Internet of Things, this paper developed the power wireless private network telecommunication terminals. The functional design and development were introduced respectively from the system architecture, hardware, and software. The key design and parameters were tested to verify the performance. The power user electric data acquire business was selected to test the service adaptation and business function of the terminal. The results showed that the telecommunication terminal can meet the requirements of the standard specification, and can bear the power user electric data acquire business.
Key word:
power wireless private network
embedded system
state grid chip
telecommunication terminal

Electronic Components and Circuits

A simple method for detecting the state of remote voltage compensation connection for SSAS

DOI:10.16157/j.issn.0258-7998.190930

Author:Jin Shanshan1,2,Zhang Donglai3,Wang Chao2,Wang Zicai1,Zhang Hua2

Author Affilications:1.Aerospace Department,Harbin Institute of Technology,Harbin 150001,China; 2.Power Electronics Department,Shenzhen Academy of Aerospace Technology,Shenzhen 518057,China; 3.School of Mechanical Engineer and Automation,Harbin Institute of Technology(Shenzhen),Shenzhen 518055,China

Abstract:The space solar array simulator(SSAS) simulates the output characteristic curve of the solar panel under various load conditions, which is used to complete the performance test of the tested power system, and is widely used in the field test field of the spacecraft power system. However, in the actual test environment, the long test cable between the solar array simulator and the power supply of the spacecraft being tested seriously affects the simulation accuracy of the output curve of the solar array simulator. Therefore, the compensation connection line is generally used to remotely compensate the output voltage of the simulator. This paper proposes a simple method to detect the connection state of the remote voltage compensation terminal connection line, and gives a normalized fault state judgment standard. This method is not only suitable for solar array simulator equipment, but also for any high-power power supply where remote voltage compensation is required for the output voltage.
Key word:
I-V curve
remote voltage compensation
differential sampling circuit
fault connection status detection
curve simulation accuracy

Signal conditioning circuit design based on negative feedback theory

DOI:10.16157/j.issn.0258-7998.191004

Author:Jiang Rundong,Yao Jinjie,Wang Min,Wang Ruirui

Author Affilications:Shanxi Key Laboratory of Signal Capturing & Process,North University of China,Taiyuan 030051,China

Abstract:The received signal amplitude of zero-IF Doppler radar usually has a large dynamic range, and this large dynamic range brings inconvenience to signal acquisition. In view of the large dynamic range of this received signal, this paper designs a signal conditioning circuit from the perspective of negative feedback, which includes low noise amplification module, automatic gain control module, non-diode precision rectifier module and subtraction amplifier circuit module; it realizes the function of automatic gain control. After the computer software is simulated, the hardware circuit is fabricated, and the function of the debugging circuit meets the requirements.
Key word:
signal conditioning
negative feedback
auto gain control